Comma Clues #1: Creating a Compound Sentence With a Comma-Coordinating Conjunction (,cc)

Comma Clues #1 Compound Sentence With Comma-Coordinating Conjunction


“Conjunction Junction—what’s your function?”

Did you start to sing along? Can you picture the images?

How old are you????? lol

Most kids today are not raised on “School House Rock,” which is such a shame! Because you really can’t forget the songs, jingles, rhymes—and dare I say—rules learned from those little ditties. (You can still find them on Youtube!)

And those little ditties are really needed when it comes to commas! Commas are a mystery to many people–and rightly so! They are extremely subjective at times across the board. And then, different handbooks and authorities stress different rules for them, making them even more elusive.


Compound Sentence Quiz!

Compound Sentence Quiz

Are you ready for your quiz? Can you create compound sentences with the sentence pairs given below?


Use either of the following:

1. A semicolon (with a complete sentence on the left and a complete sentence on the right)

2. A comma-coordinating conjunction between two complete sentences (,for/,and/,nor/,but/,or/,yet/,so—FANBOYS)


PUNCTUATION PUZZLE: The shepherd led them to the brook….

PUNCTUATION PUZZLE—plus a couple of other errors for you to find!

The shepherd lead them to the brook and they drank alot, because they were very, hot, and thirsty.

Here is the answer with an explanation for each aspectbelow: The shepherd led them to the brook, and they drank a lot because they were very hot and thirsty.

 LED vs LEAD: The shepherd LED them to the brook……

      1.  LEAD (pronounced ledd with as short e) is only pronounced ledd when it refers to a metal or pencil graphite.           2. Otherwise LEAD is pronounced leed (long e) and is the current tense of the verb lead (LEED).                                     3. LED is the past tense of the verb LEAD (pronounced LEED, with a long e).

CS ,cc CS–Do you remember these rules for compound sentences? 

1. CS stands for complete sentence; cc stands for coordinating conjunction. 

2. You can join one CS (complete sentence) with another CS by using a comma-cc (,For/ ,And/ ,Nor/ ,But/ ,Or/ ,Yet/ ,So). 

3. You may not combine two complete sentences into one with a cc only–you must put a comma before it: The shepherd led them to the brook, AND they drank….

 ALOT vs A LOT:  ALOT is not one word; it should be two words–A LOT—meaning a bunch or a large amount: The shepherd led them to the brook, and they drank a lot….

No comma before a subordinator at the end of a sentence unless it is a WHICH clause-

1. You do not need a comma before the BECAUSE. 

2. You do not hear a pause (like you would if it were a WHICH clause): The shepherd led them to the brook, and they drank a lot because they were very hot and thirsty.

No Comma Between an adverb and the adjective it describes—

1. Or more clearly put, no comma between a qualifier and a describer: VERY hot and thirsty (not VERY, hot, and thirsty).

2.  Very is an adverb telling how hot (an adverb describing an adjective or qualifying it). 

3. Tip for this: 

     a. If you can put an AND where you are trying to put the comma, then a comma is needed (in place of the and): they were muddy, hot, and thirsty (muddy AND hot AND thirsty). 

     b. If you cannot put an AND, do not put a comma: very AND hot—NO!). 

     c.  Also, do not use a comma when you have only two adjectives and you are placing an AND in between them–either use a comma (hot, thirsty) OR place an AND (hot and thirsty) but not both.

Punctuation Puzzle: They did not object and thus the area was named the Bermuda Triangle.

PUNCTUATION PUZZLE: How would you punctuate this sentence? (See comments for my suggestions.)

They did not object and thus the area was named the Bermuda Triangle.

The first thing that stands out to me is the CS (complete sentence) on the left of the coordinating conjunction (cc) and the complete sentence on the right of the coordinating conjunction. 

So place a comma before the coordinating conjunction to create a compound sentence: They did not object, and thus the area was named the Bermuda Triangle.

Secondly, there is a word that is called by many different names in grammar terms: thus. We call it a conjunctive adverb (an adverb that joins). 

Conjunctive adverbs within sentences are always surrounded by punctuation marks. In this case, the conjunctive adverb is dropped into the sentence (and can be plucked out and the sentence will still remain a sentence), so there should be a comma on each side of it. You can also HEAR this comma: They did not object, and, thus, the area was named the Bermuda Triangle. 

I would punctuate it like this–They did not object, and, thus, the area was named the Bermuda Triangle. 

However, when my older children were little, I read aloud to them three to five hours a day. Commas show voice inflection and fall, so they are especially near and dear to my heart when reading orally to my kids through the years. Are you comma crazy? 

Can I Start a Sentence With a Coordinating Conjunction?

We had an interesting conversation in my high school creative writing class this week. One of the students started a sentence with and, and, of course, the more grammarly types thought that he should not.

Being the kind of teacher who does not like to let any potential lesson pass, I delved in. That is what I would like to “teach” here today–but first let’s go back to those earlier lessons on compound sentences and comma use–and, of course, what a coordinating conjunction is to begin with.

You might remember a recent post (one of my PUNCTUATION PUZZLES, actually) in which I discussed how to create a compound sentence using a semicolon. (Remember, compound has to do with TWO, just like a compound fracture is a break in two places. Thus, a compound sentence is two sentences joined together as one.)

It can be found here ( ). In a nutshell, it tells how a compound sentence may be created by combining two complete sentences (CS) into one sentence with a semicolon between the two.

Of course, the two sentences you are combining must be linked to each other in subject matter in order to do this; each half the compound should be somewhat similar in weightiness as well. This compound-creating helps a writer to link common thoughts and show their link without any additional words.

Then I also had another post about creating a compound sentence with a comma-coordinating conjunction  ( ). In this post, I described how you can combine two sentences into one with the same guidelines for the semicolon compound sentence–but with the added benefit of meaning via the coordinating conjuction.

I also taught this little trick: FANBOYS. This is a quick method to learn the seven true coordinating conjunctions:

F or
A nd
N or
B ut
O r
Y et
S o

Again, the beauty of the compound sentence with the coordinating conjunction (as opposed to the semicolon, which is good for showing off!) is that each of those seven little words has the potential to bring a meaning, a relationship, a link, a causality, and more. 

So, what if you (or your student) wants to START a sentence with one of those little meaningful, relational, linking, causal words?

Learn how to do it well! Or teach your student how to do it well!

According to R.W. Burchfield in The New Fowler’s Modern English Usage, it is completely legal: “There is a persistent belief that it is improper to begin a sentence with And, but this prohibition has been cheerfully ignored by standard authors from Anglo-Saxon times onwards. An initial And is a useful aid to writers as the narrative continues”

Of course, if you are a lover of great literature as some of my kids are, you can find time after time when a noted author began narrative, as well as poetry, with a coordinating conjunction. And, obviously, most of the time he or she did it well!

When and how would one begin a sentence with a coordinating conjunction?

1. When the material following the coordinating conjunction is LINKED to the previous sentence (much like creating the compound sentence)

2. When the meaning of the coordinating conjunction is valuable to the sentence:

a. And–linking, additionally, and even sometimes because of: She was going to be late. AND she didn’t care.

b. Or–linking, contrasting, giving another option: You can have the cake. OR you can have the ice cream.

c. But–constrasting, showing causality or exception: You may have cake or ice cream. BUT you may not have them both.

3. When the coordinating conjunctions and, but, or, & yet are used.

a. These are the four that work the best at the beginning of a sentence.
b. For is usually a preposition when it is at the beginning of a sentence. (More on that later.)
c. Sometimes so will work, but it might be a little stilted.
d. Nor doesn’t work at all.

4. When you want a stop after the first sentence–a beat, if you will. Then you want the second sentence to have more power than the first–and the contrast or causality to be greater.

I’m a teacher through and through. I go to sleep thinking about teaching and writing–and I get up thinking about teaching and writing. So…..I woke up this morning with a mnemonic to use with my students for this sentence structure. (I am mnemonic, rhyme, and jingle crazy in my textbooks!)

“When you start a sentence with a coordinating conjunction,
Be sure it’s strong–be sure it has a function!”

I was thrilled that my creative writing students are thinking so deeply about sentences. Creative writing, story writing, poetry, narratives–all of these are writing areas in which thinking deeply about sentence structure really pays off. And beginning a sentence with a coordinating conjunction is a way to really add punch and emphasis to a creative writing piece. Smile… 

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