I can remember learning about affect and effect in school–and being completely confused all of the time. Is that how you feel? Well, get ready to be relieved of your affect/effect phobia!
M is for MAJOR WORKS AND MINOR WORKS!
Are you as ready to move on from this topic as I am? With teaching it to one hundred students last week and writing about it here several times, I am just about “major and minored” out! However, we can’t leave such a misunderstood topic without a quiz!
So here you go…..Decide in each sentence provide whether the title is a major work or minor work. (Answers below.)
1. I used the encyclopedia essay titled Mammals for my report.
2. I just got a new cd called Ballads for the Ballroom. (That sounds like a good idea–I should do that!)
3. Have you ever read the book The Red Badge of Courage?
4. My favorite dance song on my new cd is Could I Have This Dance?
5. She assigned five chapters this week, starting with Non-Essential Information. (You guess it, LL readers–that is what we are going to study this week on here!)
6. They said we could consult Wikipedia, but we aren’t allowed to cite it.
7. Our new favorite boxed television show is Person of Interest.
8. I haven’t received a Reader’s Digest magazine in years.
9. My favorite composition series is Meaningful Composition.
10. I am using their bonus book right now, called The SAT Essay and Other Timed Writing.
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ANSWERS! Major Works are shown with Italics; Minor Works are shown with quotation marks. Explanations are in parentheses following each sentence.
1. I used the encyclopedia essay titled, “Mammals,” for my report. (Encyclopedia essay title is a Minor Work--found within the encyclopedia, whose title is a Major Work.)
2. I just got a new cd called Ballads for the Ballroom. (Musical compilation titles are Major Works–the song titles on/in the compilation are Minor Works.)
3. Have you ever read the book The Red Badge of Courage? (Book titles are Major Works–the chapter titles within the book are Minor Works.)
4. My favorite dance song on my new cd is “Could I Have This Dance?” (Song titles are Minor Works–the title of the songbook or cd that contains the song is the Major Work.)
5. She assigned five chapters this week, starting with “Non-Essential Information.” (Chapter titles are Minor Works–the title of the book containing the chapters is the Major Work.)
6. They said we could consult Wikipedia, but we aren’t allowed to cite it. (Encyclopedia titles are Major Works–the titles of the essays within the encyclopedia are Minor Works.)
7. Our new favorite boxed television show is Person of Interest. (Television show titles are Major Works–the titles of the scenes or chapters within the program are Minor Works.)
8. I haven’t received a Reader’s Digest magazine in years. (Magazine or journal titles are Major Works–the titles of the articles within the magazine/journal are Minor Works.)
9. My favorite composition series is Meaningful Composition. (Book titles are Major Works–the chapters within the book are Minor Works.)
10. I am using their bonus book right now, called The SAT Essay and Other Timed Writing. (Book titles are Major Works–the chapters within the book are Minor Works.)
“Sometimes I see colons used before quotes; other times I see them used before lists. Which is correct? How do I know when a colon is the right punctuation mark?”
Just taught this yesterday to a dozen kids preparing for the SAT–and I’ll be teaching it again tomorrow to a dozen more who are preparing for the SAT. I will tell you what I told them:
1. You want to learn how to use colons. That skill will make you look smart since so few people know how to use them properly!
2. You should always have a complete sentence on the left side of the colon:
a. This means that it CAN be used following a speech tag (before your quoted words) IF the speech tag is a complete sentence:
i. Yes: HE SPOKE WORDS OF COMFORT: “You can get through this. You are strong. I know you can make it.” (Words on the left of the colon could stand alone; you could place a period there, and it would be a real, complete sentence.)
ii. No: HE SAID: “You can get through this. You are strong. I know you can make it.”
b. This means that it CAN be used to introduce a list IF the introduction to the list is a complete sentence:
i. Yes: I NEED SEVERAL THINGS FROM THE STORE: milk, bread, eggs, and bananas.
ii. No: I NEED TO GET: milk, bread, eggs, and bananas.
c. This means that it CAN be used to ask a rhetorical question IF the words preceding the colon make up a complete sentence:
i. Yes: WE LOOKED FOR HIM EVERYWHERE: suddenly he appeared!
ii. No: WE LOOKED AND: suddenly he appeared!
3. A colon should NEVER follow two types+ of words:
a. An action verb used as an action verb. No: SHE WANTED US TO GIVE: money, time, and household goods.
b. A preposition used as a preposition: No: SHE ASKED US TO: come early, stay late, and work non-stop.
+When a sentence ends in an action verb or a preposition, that word usually makes the sentence into a non-sentence (i.e. you can’t put a period there and call it a real sentence): She asked us to.
4. Colon use is often subjective in technical writing, such as text books, blogs (!), and other places where they are used to teach or expound upon topics in list form, etc.
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B is for BEING VERBS!
In our books, we group being/helping/linking verbs together since they often serve the same purpose, and they all have the same modifiers (i.e. adjectives modifying noun before BHL verb as opposed to adverbs modifying the verb), etc.
To help you remember the Be, a Helper, Link verbs, there is a little rhyme that you can sing to the tune of ABC’s (or “Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star”):
Be, a Helper, Link verbs,
Is, Are, Am, Was, & Were.
Be, & Being, Been, Become,
Has, & Had, & Have are ones.
(Now I said my ABC’s)
Can, Could, Shall, Should—they are fun.
(Next time won’t you sing with me?)
Will, Would, Do, Did, Does, & Done.
May, Might, Must—they are some as well,
Appear, Look, Seem, Remain, Taste, Feel, & Smell.
B is for BHL VERBS!
There are a number of reasons to memorize being, helping, and linking verbs:
(1) When one stands alone as a linking verb or is used before a base verb as a helping verb, it is the verb that you match with the subject: He IS happy…is must match with He; they ARE going (are must match with they.
(2) They tell WHEN something happened (present, past, etc.).
(3) When one stands alone, it may have an adjective following it–which is going back to the noun or pronoun before it, describing that noun or pronoun. (You do not use an adverb with a single BHL verb.)
(4) When one stands alone, it should have the subjective form of a pronoun following it (if it has a pronoun following it), not the objective: This is SHE (not this is HER).
(5) When a base verb follows has, had, or have (and oftentimes was and were), it should be in its past participle tense:
a. has written
b. had gone
c. have done
d. had lain
e. has risen
f. have come
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A is for APPOSITIVE!
We teach the appositive extensively in our writing and language arts books because it is an amazing conciseness technique–and it shows a student’s skill in handling difficult grammar concepts and punctuation challenges. Plus, it truly does help a student write more concisely!
Here is the basic of this grammar item:
1. Is a phrase that restates something else.
2. Is usually used to restate (or elaborate on) the subject (though it can be used to restate anything really.
3. Is set off with commas if it falls in the middle of the sentence. (Remember: Anything that is set off with commas should be “removable” and a complete sentence remains without it!)
4. Can be used to combine two sentences into one in short, choppy sentences.
Donna writes language arts and composition books every day.
Donna has written over fifty curriculum texts.
Donna, WHO HAS WRITTEN OVER FIFTY CURRICULUM TEXTS, writes language arts and composition books every day.
A is for APPOSITIVE
Did you know that last week’s PUNCTUATION PUZZLE had an appositive in it?
I had barely noticed her mood, HER TEMPERAMENT, when she suddenly blew up, and she began shouting and throwing things at me, which was something I was not accustomed to seeing.
Notice the following:
1. Her temperament renames the noun mood.
2. It is set off with commas surrounding it (her temperament).
3. It (along with the commas) can be removed from the sentence, and a complete sentence remains.